Fortalecimiento de la cadena de valor del rocoto fresco (Capsicum pubescens) de la selva central para el mercado de Lima
Sardón Mamani, Erick Denis
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El presente trabajo de investigación, se basa en el estudio de la cadena de valor del rocoto, como respuesta a la necesidad de conocer de manera detallada la situación actual y potencial de la principal zona productora de rocoto del Perú. Se empleó la metodología ValueLink, la cual es usada en programas y proyectos de desarrollo económico en agronegocios, la cual nos proporciona herramientas para discernir la información obtenida en el trabajo de campo. A partir del trabajo de campo se pudo describir y analizar la cadena de valor encontrando los siguientes resultados: la articulación a lo largo de la cadena no es la adecuada por la presencia de varios actores antes de que el producto llegue al mercado. Los productores reciben un bajo beneficio económico debido a la poca información del precio de venta del rocoto y no estar asociados por lo que tienen un bajo poder de negociación. Así mismo para la ampliación de la superficie de producción del rocoto los productores vienen deforestando el bosque para aprovechar el nuevo terreno rico en nutrientes. Los costos de producción se basan principalmente en costos de insumos y de mano de obra. El precio de chacra representa el 58 por ciento del precio final de venta en Lima. Finalmente en el análisis de la gobernanza, que hace referencia al poder y control entre los eslabones de la cadena de valor, se encontró como resultado una gobernanza del tipo Mercado debido a que las transacciones en la cadena son relativamente simples, las que se basan en el poder del comprador. En base a estos resultados encontrados se plantearon estrategias para el mejoramiento, a nivel técnico y social, para lograr un fortalecimiento o mejora conjunta de todos los componentes de la cadena de valor del rocoto fresco de la selva central.One of the issues that Espinar faces is the presence of conflicts due to the expanding activity of the ‘Great Mining’. The objective of this study was to understand and determine the cause-effects and the relationships of the socioenvironmental struggles of the ‘Great Mining’ in Espinar (1980-2013). In order to accomplish this, compiling information on the history of mining was done first, which identified and characterized cycles by the methodology of analysis of political ecology and adaptive cycles. Afterwards, qualitative models of historical evolution were produced, which allowed identification of the main actors and factors at different moments. Lastly, a survey was carried out, which aided to understand the environmental perception of the civil society. Ω (omega) moments or collapse of each cycle were characterized through analyzing the six capitals (natural, economic, human, social, political and physical). The arrival of Minero Perú gave rise to subsequent explorations and exploitations by tunnel until the 1980s with a medium amount of mining, as well as open-pit mines to present day. A single stage is divided into a partial cycle and two mini-cycles. The partial cycle is in a state of maturity, and it comprises mini-cycles: exploitation by EMETINSA S.A, until their privatization in 1994, and exploitation by Magma Copper Company until 2003. The analysis indicates that at the end of stage 0, the natural capital (Kn) and the economic one (Ke) are falling. On one hand, we have the price of the copper in decadence on an international level, and on the other hand, many local miners were devoted to handmade mining, preferably of gold. As for copper, it was difficult to be exploited due to the complex geologic organization of the mine. The social capital (Ks), the political capital (Kp) and the human capital (Kh) remain steady, whereas the physical capital (Kf) tends to fall a little, prior to the opening of the pits. To begin ‘open cut’ mining, a number of variables enter, jointly or simultaneously, a phase of collapse, thereby indicating that the whole system is entering the omega phase (Ω) of stage I. Kn (↓) declines because of the international price of copper. Originally, the infrastructure was faulty since it lacked electric power and highways to transfer minerals on a larger scale, which were difficult to guide due to the unfavorable behavior of the price of metals, making Ke (↓) diminish. Kp (↓) fell because many political decisions regarding exploitation had not been made, and with the clearing of the floor they lost their infrastructure, which caused the deterioration of ancestral ways of life, customs, personal relationships, as well as the introduction of mental exogenous molds to the system, causing a decline in Kf (↓). Ks (↓) had the forced expropriations of cattle and agricultural lands to clear and open the pit, plus the displacement of the populations, which generated further socio-cultural issues, such as country-city migration, breakdown of families, among others. Although Kh remained steady, it showed a slight fall at the beginning of this stage. In mini-cycle 1, Ks (↓) fell due to the drastic reduction of workforce and the dissipation of the mining organization. Kn and Ke (↑) were favorable due to the evident rise of the international price of copper since 1993, as well as the polymetallic mining exploitation, and a diversification of its production. Kp (→) remains the same, due to the central government’s ‘closed policy’. Kh (→) remains the same too, although its first negative effects on the environment become clear; the first indications of contamination are evidenced primarily from several environmental studies. In minicycle 2, Ks (↑) showed a slight improvement because of the agreements reached between the civil society and the mining one. Kp (↑) increased due to the connectivity, participation and proposal developed by the local government and the civil society with other international entities. Over time, Kn (↓) has been declining in terms of access to natural resources and quality, focused on the adjacent populations and the rising price of copper; the per capita income and HDI for Ke (↑) has been increasing too. Initially, the most influential actors in the partial cycle and mini-cycles were the local miners and Minero Perú, the central government, a number of expropriated populations, and EMETINSA S.A.; however, the adjacent populations to the mine, as well as the central and local government, CooperAcción, the civil society, the mine and Fundación Tintaya are currently the most influential ones. The price of copper, Law N° 18880 (nationalization), Royal Legislative Decree N° 41/81/ME/Municipal Decree (expropriation), Legislative Decree N° 674 and 708 (privatization), and the demand for metals have been major influencers, too. The influence scales of the actors reach from a global standpoint to a local one. The mining has an impact on some variables in the system, such as migration, governance, escalation, and environmental impacts. The conflict was due to the degradation of the water and soil resources, which led to socio-environmental degradation of adjacent populations. Such resources have been contaminated and degraded, and so has the quality of people’s health. The mining sector is not perceived as an employment generator, despite it is claimed to contribute to the development and the sustainability of the environment (NGOs). It is suggested to conduct an analysis with adaptive cycles in order to organize the data and describe the dynamics of the system. It is also recommended to institutionalize a permanent dialogue and have a goal-oriented development in order to effectively transform the conflicts and promote individual consent for better decisions that affect our natural resources.
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